Pharming is a type of cyber attack that redirects a website’s traffic to another, bogus website. This is done without the user’s knowledge or consent, with the aim of stealing sensitive information such as login credentials, credit card numbers, and other personal details. The term ‘pharming’ is derived from ‘phishing’, another type of cyber attack, and ‘farming’, referring to the large-scale nature of the attack.

Pharming attacks can be extremely damaging, as they can lead to significant financial loss, identity theft, and other serious consequences. They are also difficult to detect and prevent, as they often involve sophisticated techniques and technologies. This article will provide a comprehensive overview of pharming, including its methods, impacts, and prevention strategies.

Methods of Pharming

Pharming attacks can be carried out in several ways, each with its own set of challenges and vulnerabilities. The most common methods include DNS poisoning, host file modification, and malicious software.

DNS poisoning involves corrupting the DNS server, which is responsible for translating domain names into IP addresses. By altering the DNS records, the attacker can redirect users to a fake website, even if they enter the correct domain name. This method is particularly effective, as it can affect a large number of users at once.

DNS Poisoning

DNS poisoning, also known as DNS spoofing, is a type of pharming attack that involves corrupting the DNS server. This is done by introducing false information into the DNS cache, causing the server to redirect users to a fake website. The fake website is often designed to look exactly like the legitimate one, making it difficult for users to detect the scam.

This method is particularly effective, as it can affect a large number of users at once. However, it also requires a high level of technical skill and access to the DNS server, making it less common than other methods.

Host File Modification

Host file modification is another method of pharming, which involves altering the host file on a user’s computer. The host file is a local file that maps domain names to IP addresses, acting as a local DNS server. By modifying this file, the attacker can redirect the user to a fake website whenever they enter a specific domain name.

This method is less widespread than DNS poisoning, as it requires access to the user’s computer. However, it can be carried out using malicious software, making it a significant threat.

Impacts of Pharming

Pharming can have severe consequences, both for individuals and organizations. The most common impacts include financial loss, identity theft, and damage to reputation.

Financial loss is a direct result of pharming, as the attacker often aims to steal sensitive information such as credit card numbers and bank account details. This can lead to unauthorized transactions, fraud, and significant financial loss for the victim.

Identity Theft

Identity theft is another major impact of pharming. By stealing personal information such as names, addresses, and social security numbers, the attacker can impersonate the victim and carry out fraudulent activities in their name. This can lead to serious legal and financial consequences for the victim, as well as emotional distress.

Moreover, identity theft can be difficult to detect and resolve, as it often involves complex legal processes and a significant amount of time. Therefore, it is crucial to take preventive measures against pharming and other types of cyber attacks.

Damage to Reputation

For organizations, pharming can cause significant damage to their reputation. If a company’s website is targeted in a pharming attack, it can lead to a loss of trust among customers and clients, affecting the company’s business and brand image.

Furthermore, a successful pharming attack can expose the company’s security vulnerabilities, leading to potential legal and regulatory issues. Therefore, it is essential for organizations to implement robust security measures and educate their employees about the risks of pharming.

Prevention of Pharming

Preventing pharming requires a combination of technical measures and user education. On the technical side, this includes implementing secure DNS protocols, regularly updating software and systems, and using secure connections. On the user side, it involves being aware of the risks, checking the legitimacy of websites, and using secure login methods.

Moreover, organizations can implement security policies and procedures to protect against pharming and other types of cyber attacks. This includes regular security audits, employee training, and incident response plans.

Technical Measures

Technical measures are crucial in preventing pharming. This includes implementing secure DNS protocols such as DNSSEC, which provides authentication and integrity to DNS data. By verifying the source and integrity of DNS data, DNSSEC can prevent DNS poisoning and other types of DNS attacks.

Regularly updating software and systems is another important measure. This includes updating the operating system, web browser, and other software, as well as installing security patches and updates. By keeping software and systems up-to-date, users can protect against known vulnerabilities and reduce the risk of pharming.

User Education

User education is equally important in preventing pharming. This involves being aware of the risks and knowing how to detect and avoid pharming attacks. For example, users should check the legitimacy of websites by looking for signs such as a secure connection (https), a padlock icon, and a correct domain name.

Using secure login methods is another key measure. This includes using strong, unique passwords, enabling two-factor authentication, and avoiding the use of public Wi-Fi for sensitive transactions. By following these practices, users can significantly reduce the risk of pharming and other types of cyber attacks.


Pharming is a serious threat in the digital world, with the potential to cause significant financial loss, identity theft, and damage to reputation. However, by understanding the methods, impacts, and prevention strategies, individuals and organizations can protect themselves against this threat and maintain a secure online environment.

As the digital landscape continues to evolve, it is crucial to stay informed about the latest threats and security measures. By doing so, we can ensure the safety and integrity of our digital lives.

With cybersecurity threats on the rise, organizations need to protect all areas of their business. This includes defending their websites and web applications from bots, spam, and abuse. In particular, web interactions such as logins, registrations, and online forms are increasingly under attack.

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