CEO Fraud, also known as Business Email Compromise (BEC), is a type of cybercrime that targets companies, particularly those with international partners or suppliers. This form of fraud involves the impersonation of a high-ranking executive, typically the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), in an attempt to deceive employees, partners, or vendors into performing unauthorized actions or transactions. These actions often involve the transfer of funds or sensitive information to the fraudster’s account.

CEO Fraud is a sophisticated scam that leverages social engineering techniques and detailed knowledge about the targeted organization. The fraudsters often spend a significant amount of time researching the company, its employees, and its business practices to make their impersonation more believable. The success of CEO Fraud largely depends on the ability of the fraudster to convincingly impersonate the executive and the level of awareness and training of the targeted employees.

Types of CEO Fraud

CEO Fraud can take several forms, each with its own unique characteristics and methods. However, all types share the common goal of deceiving the target into performing actions that benefit the fraudster.

The most common types of CEO Fraud include:

Email Impersonation

This is the most common type of CEO Fraud. In this case, the fraudster impersonates the CEO or another high-ranking executive by using a fake or compromised email account. The email will typically instruct the recipient to perform an urgent action, such as transferring funds or providing sensitive information.

The success of this type of fraud depends on the ability of the fraudster to convincingly mimic the executive’s writing style and tone. Additionally, the fraudster may use information obtained from social media or other sources to make the request seem more legitimate.

Phone Impersonation

While less common than email impersonation, phone impersonation is another method used in CEO Fraud. In this case, the fraudster impersonates the CEO or another executive over the phone. The fraudster may use voice-altering technology to make their voice sound like the executive’s.

Like email impersonation, the success of this type of fraud depends on the ability of the fraudster to convincingly mimic the executive’s speech patterns and tone. The fraudster may also use information obtained from social media or other sources to make the conversation seem more legitimate.

Preventing CEO Fraud

Preventing CEO Fraud requires a combination of technical measures, policies, and employee training. The goal is to make it more difficult for the fraudster to impersonate the executive and to ensure that employees are able to recognize and respond to fraudulent requests.

Some of the most effective prevention measures include:

Authentification à deux facteurs

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is a security measure that requires users to provide two different types of identification before they can access their account. This typically involves something the user knows, such as a password, and something the user has, such as a mobile device.

By implementing 2FA, companies can make it more difficult for fraudsters to gain access to executive email accounts. Even if the fraudster is able to obtain the executive’s password, they will still need access to the second factor to log in to the account.

Formation des employés

Employee training is one of the most effective ways to prevent CEO Fraud. Employees should be trained to recognize the signs of CEO Fraud, such as unusual requests or changes in the executive’s writing style or tone.

Training should also include information on how to respond to suspected fraud. This may involve verifying the request through a different communication channel, reporting the request to the IT department, or following a specific procedure established by the company.

Impact of CEO Fraud

CEO Fraud can have a significant impact on a company, both financially and in terms of reputation. The direct financial loss can be substantial, particularly if the fraud involves a large money transfer. However, the indirect costs can also be significant.

These indirect costs may include:

Atteinte à la réputation

CEO Fraud can damage a company’s reputation, particularly if the fraud becomes public knowledge. Customers, partners, and vendors may lose trust in the company, which can lead to lost business. Additionally, the company may face scrutiny from regulators or law enforcement.

Rebuilding trust after a CEO Fraud incident can be a long and costly process. The company may need to invest in public relations efforts, customer outreach, and additional security measures to reassure stakeholders.

Operational Disruption

CEO Fraud can also cause operational disruption. If the fraud involves the theft of sensitive information, the company may need to spend time and resources to recover the information and mitigate any potential damage.

Additionally, the company may need to conduct an internal investigation to determine how the fraud occurred and how to prevent future incidents. This can divert resources away from normal business operations.


CEO Fraud is a serious threat that can cause significant damage to a company. However, with the right measures in place, companies can protect themselves from this type of fraud.

By implementing strong security measures, training employees, and maintaining vigilance, companies can reduce their risk of falling victim to CEO Fraud. It’s important to remember that everyone in the organization has a role to play in preventing fraud and maintaining the company’s security.

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