Clickjacking, also known as UI Redress Attack, is a malicious technique that tricks users into clicking on hidden links or buttons on a website without their knowledge. This technique is used by cybercriminals to steal sensitive information, spread malware, or gain control over a user’s device.

Clickjacking is a significant threat in the realm of cybersecurity as it exploits the trust users place in the visual consistency of web interfaces. It’s a deceptive method that takes advantage of the way users interact with websites, making it a challenging issue to tackle.

Understanding Clickjacking

Clickjacking involves overlaying a malicious web page over a legitimate one. The malicious page is made transparent so that the user can’t see it. When the user interacts with what appears to be the legitimate page, they are actually interacting with the hidden, malicious page.

This technique is often used to trick users into revealing sensitive information, such as usernames and passwords, or to get them to perform actions they wouldn’t ordinarily do, such as liking a social media page or sending an email.

The Mechanics of Clickjacking

Clickjacking is typically accomplished using HTML and JavaScript. The attacker creates a malicious website and uses CSS to make it transparent. They then position this transparent website over a legitimate one. When the user clicks on what they believe to be a legitimate link or button, they are actually clicking on the hidden, malicious link or button.

The malicious link or button can be programmed to perform a variety of actions. It could, for example, download malware onto the user’s device, or it could redirect the user to another malicious website. The possibilities are virtually endless, making clickjacking a versatile and dangerous attack method.

Types of Clickjacking Attacks

There are several types of clickjacking attacks, each with its own unique characteristics. The most common types include Likejacking, Cursorjacking, and Filejacking.

Likejacking involves tricking users into liking a social media page or post. Cursorjacking changes the appearance and position of the user’s cursor, tricking them into clicking on hidden links or buttons. Filejacking involves tricking users into downloading malicious files.

Preventing Clickjacking

Preventing clickjacking involves a combination of user awareness and technical measures. Users should be educated about the risks of clickjacking and how to spot potential attacks. They should be encouraged to only click on links and buttons from trusted sources, and to be wary of websites that seem suspicious.

On the technical side, there are several measures that can be taken to prevent clickjacking. These include using the X-Frame-Options HTTP header to prevent a website from being framed, implementing Content Security Policy (CSP), and using JavaScript to detect and block clickjacking attempts.

Using X-Frame-Options

The X-Frame-Options HTTP header is a security measure that can be used to prevent a website from being framed. When this header is set, the browser will not allow the website to be displayed within a frame or iframe, effectively preventing clickjacking attacks.

There are three possible values for the X-Frame-Options header: DENY, which prevents all framing; SAMEORIGIN, which only allows framing by the same website; and ALLOW-FROM, which allows framing by specified websites.

Implementing Content Security Policy

Content Security Policy (CSP) is another security measure that can be used to prevent clickjacking. CSP allows website owners to specify which domains are allowed to embed their website. This can effectively prevent clickjacking by blocking malicious websites from embedding the legitimate website.

CSP is implemented using the Content-Security-Policy HTTP header. This header can be configured to specify a list of trusted domains, and the browser will only allow the website to be embedded by these domains.

Using JavaScript to Detect and Block Clickjacking

JavaScript can be used to detect and block clickjacking attempts. This can be done by checking if the website is being framed, and if so, breaking out of the frame. This method is not foolproof, as it can be bypassed by disabling JavaScript, but it can provide an additional layer of protection.

Another JavaScript-based method is to use visual shuffling. This involves randomly changing the position of buttons and links on the website, making it difficult for an attacker to overlay a malicious link or button in the correct position.

Clickjacking and CAPTCHA

CAPTCHA, which stands for Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart, is a security measure used to distinguish between human users and bots. It is often used as a defense mechanism against various types of cyberattacks, including clickjacking.

However, it’s important to note that while CAPTCHA can be effective in preventing bots from carrying out clickjacking attacks, it is not a foolproof solution. Sophisticated attackers can use techniques such as CAPTCHA farming, where they employ humans to solve CAPTCHAs, to bypass this security measure.

Types de CAPTCHA

There are several types of CAPTCHA, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The most common types include text-based CAPTCHA, image-based CAPTCHA, and audio-based CAPTCHA.

Text-based CAPTCHA requires the user to enter a series of letters or numbers that are displayed in a distorted image. Image-based CAPTCHA requires the user to identify certain images or patterns. Audio-based CAPTCHA plays a series of sounds or words, and the user is required to enter what they hear.

Pros and Cons of CAPTCHA

CAPTCHA can be an effective tool in preventing automated attacks, including clickjacking. It can make it more difficult for bots to carry out attacks, and it can slow down the attack process, giving defenders more time to respond.

However, CAPTCHA also has its drawbacks. It can be frustrating for users, especially if it is difficult to solve. It can also be bypassed by sophisticated attackers using techniques such as CAPTCHA farming. Furthermore, it does not provide protection against human attackers who are carrying out clickjacking attacks manually.

Conclusion

Clickjacking is a significant threat in the realm of cybersecurity. It exploits the trust users place in the visual consistency of web interfaces, and it can be used to steal sensitive information, spread malware, or gain control over a user’s device.

Preventing clickjacking requires a combination of user awareness and technical measures. Users should be educated about the risks of clickjacking and how to spot potential attacks. On the technical side, measures such as using the X-Frame-Options HTTP header, implementing Content Security Policy, and using JavaScript to detect and block clickjacking attempts can be effective.

While CAPTCHA can provide some protection against clickjacking, it is not a foolproof solution. It can be bypassed by sophisticated attackers, and it does not provide protection against human attackers. Therefore, it should be used as part of a comprehensive security strategy, rather than as a standalone solution.

Face à l'augmentation des menaces de cybersécurité, les entreprises doivent protéger tous leurs secteurs d'activité. Elles doivent notamment protéger leurs sites et applications web contre les robots, le spam et les abus. En particulier, les interactions web telles que les connexions, les enregistrements et les formulaires en ligne sont de plus en plus attaquées.

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