Vishing, also known as voice phishing, is a form of cyber attack that involves the use of telephone systems to deceive individuals into revealing sensitive information. This method of attack is a significant concern in the field of cybersecurity due to its ability to exploit human vulnerability and bypass technological security measures.

Unlike other forms of phishing, which typically involve the use of deceptive emails or websites, vishing attacks are conducted over the phone. This can make them harder to identify and prevent, as they rely on the victim’s trust in the caller rather than their interaction with a potentially suspicious digital platform.

Origins and Evolution of Vishing

The term ‘vishing’ is a portmanteau of ‘voice’ and ‘phishing’. It was coined to describe a new form of phishing that emerged with the advent of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology. VoIP allows for the transmission of voice communications over the internet, making it a cost-effective and versatile tool for cybercriminals.

Over time, vishing has evolved to incorporate sophisticated social engineering techniques. These techniques are designed to manipulate victims into divulging personal information or performing actions that compromise their security. The evolution of vishing reflects the broader trend in cybercrime towards exploiting human vulnerabilities, rather than technological ones.

Early Vishing Techniques

Early vishing attacks often involved simple deception techniques, such as pretending to be a representative from a bank or other trusted institution. The attacker would ask the victim to confirm their account details or provide other sensitive information, ostensibly for verification purposes.

These early attacks relied heavily on the trust that individuals placed in telephone communications. At the time, many people were not aware of the potential for phone-based scams, making them easy targets for vishing attacks.

Modern Vishing Techniques

Modern vishing attacks are far more sophisticated. They often involve the use of caller ID spoofing, which allows the attacker to appear as a legitimate institution on the victim’s caller ID. This can make the attack more convincing and increase the likelihood of success.

In addition, modern vishing attacks often incorporate elements of research and personalization. The attacker may use information gathered from social media or other sources to make the call seem more legitimate. For example, they might reference recent transactions or other personal details to gain the victim’s trust.

Common Vishing Scams

There are several common types of vishing scams that individuals should be aware of. These scams often target specific groups, such as the elderly or those with limited technological knowledge. However, anyone can fall victim to a vishing attack if they are not careful.

Some common vishing scams include tech support scams, where the attacker pretends to be a representative from a tech company and convinces the victim to grant them remote access to their computer. Other scams involve the attacker pretending to be a government official or law enforcement officer and demanding payment for a supposed fine or debt.

Tech Support Scams

In a tech support scam, the attacker will call the victim and claim to be a representative from a well-known tech company, such as Microsoft or Apple. They will tell the victim that their computer has been infected with a virus or is experiencing other technical issues, and that they need to grant the attacker remote access to fix the problem.

Once the attacker has gained access to the victim’s computer, they can install malware, steal sensitive information, or commit other forms of cybercrime. These scams are particularly dangerous because they exploit the victim’s trust in the supposed tech company, as well as their lack of technical knowledge.

Government Impersonation Scams

In a government impersonation scam, the attacker will pretend to be a government official or law enforcement officer. They will tell the victim that they owe money for a fine or debt, and that they need to pay immediately to avoid legal consequences.

These scams often involve threats of arrest or other severe penalties, which can make them particularly intimidating. The attacker may also use caller ID spoofing to make the call appear more legitimate. However, it’s important to remember that real government agencies will never demand immediate payment over the phone or threaten arrest for non-payment.

Preventing Vishing Attacks

Preventing vishing attacks can be challenging, as they exploit human vulnerabilities rather than technological ones. However, there are several strategies that individuals can use to protect themselves from these attacks.

One of the most effective ways to prevent vishing is to be skeptical of unsolicited phone calls, especially those that request sensitive information or demand immediate action. It’s also important to verify the identity of the caller before providing any information or taking any action. This can be done by independently looking up the organization’s contact information and calling them back directly.

Éducation et sensibilisation

Education and awareness are key to preventing vishing attacks. Individuals should be aware of the common signs of a vishing attack, such as unsolicited calls, requests for sensitive information, and demands for immediate action. They should also be familiar with the common types of vishing scams and the tactics that attackers use.

Many organizations offer training programs and resources to help individuals recognize and respond to vishing attacks. These resources can be a valuable tool for preventing vishing and other forms of cybercrime.

Caller ID Verification

Caller ID verification can also be a useful tool for preventing vishing attacks. Many modern phone systems allow for the verification of caller ID information, which can help individuals identify potential vishing attacks.

However, it’s important to remember that caller ID verification is not foolproof. Attackers can use spoofing techniques to make their calls appear legitimate, so it’s always a good idea to independently verify the caller’s identity before providing any information or taking any action.

Reporting Vishing Attacks

If you believe you have been the victim of a vishing attack, it’s important to report the incident to the appropriate authorities. This can help law enforcement track down the attackers and prevent future attacks.

In the United States, vishing attacks can be reported to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) through their website. Victims can also report the incident to their local law enforcement agency and their bank or credit card company, if applicable.

Reporting to the FTC

The FTC provides a platform for reporting vishing and other forms of phishing. Victims can submit a complaint through the FTC’s website, providing details about the attack and any information they have about the attacker.

The FTC uses this information to track trends in phishing and develop strategies for preventing future attacks. They also share this information with law enforcement agencies, who can use it to investigate and prosecute the attackers.

Reporting to Local Law Enforcement

Victims of vishing can also report the incident to their local law enforcement agency. This can be particularly helpful if the victim has lost money or had their identity stolen as a result of the attack.

Local law enforcement can work with other agencies and organizations to investigate the attack and potentially recover any lost funds. They can also provide victims with resources and support to help them recover from the attack.


Vishing is a significant threat in the world of cybersecurity, exploiting human vulnerabilities to steal sensitive information and commit other forms of cybercrime. However, with education, awareness, and the right preventative measures, individuals can protect themselves from these attacks and reduce their risk of becoming a victim.

By understanding what vishing is, how it works, and how to prevent it, individuals can take a proactive approach to their cybersecurity and safeguard their personal information against this insidious form of attack.

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